Metoda bilingsów

  • Billings EL, Billings JJ and Catarinich M (1989) Billings Atlas of the Ovulation Method. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Australia.

  • Billings EL and Westmore A: The Billings Method: controlling Fertility Without Drugs or Devices. Random House, New York, New York, 1980.
  • Odeblad E.: The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method. Bulletin of the Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria. 21: 3-34, Sept. 1994.
  • Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB, et al: Symptoms and Hormonal Changes Accompanying Ovulation. The Lancet, February 5, pp. 282-284, 1972.

  • Flynn AM, and Lynch SS: Cervical Mucus Identification of the Fertile Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:545, 1976.


Metoda angielska

  • Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ: The Prediction of Ovulation: A Comparison of the Basal Body Temperature Graph, Cervical Mucus Score and Realtime Pelvic Ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385-388, 1985.


Metoda algorytmu dwóch dni

  • Dunson DB, Sinai I and Colombo B (2001) The relationship between cervical secretions and the daily probabilities of pregnancy: effectiveness of the TwoDay Algorithm. Hum Reprod 16,2278–2282.


Metoda Creighton Model System

  • Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June1998.

  • Doud J: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model of NFP. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 9:54-72, 1985.
  • Howard MP: Use Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method (Creighton Model) of Natural Family Planning. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Natural Family Planning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1990.
  • Fehring RJ, Lawrence D, and Philpot C: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning. J Obstet Gynecol, and Neonat Nurs 23: 303-309, 1994.

  • Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, and Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the CREIGHTON MODEL FertilityCareTMSystem. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1999.


Metoda mierzenia hormonów w moczu

  • Behre, H.M., Kuhlage, J., Gassner, C., Sonntag, B., Schem, C., Schneider, H.P. and Nieschlag, E. (2000) Prediction of ovulation by urinary hormone measurements with the home use ClearPlan Fertility Monitor: comparison with transvaginal ultrasound scans and serum hormone measurements. Hum. Reprod., 15, 2478±2482.



Pomiar temperatury

  • Marshall J: A Field Trial of the Basal Body Temperature Method of Regulation of Births. The Lancet, pp8-10, July 6,1968. Natural family planning. II. Basal body temperature and estimated time of ovulation. Hilgers TW, Bailey AJ.


Pomiary śluzu

  • Roland M: A Simple Test for the Determination of Ovulation, Estrogen Activity and Early Pregnancy Using the Cervical Mucus Secretion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 81-89, 1952.

  • Zondek B and Rosin S: Cervical Mucus Arborization: Its Use in the Determination of Corpus Luteum Function. Obstet Gynecol 3: 463-470, 1954.

  • Clift AF: Early Studies on the Rheology of Cervical Mucus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 829-832, 1979.

  • Cervical Mucus: Present State of Knowledge, In: Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction. World Health Organization—Colloquium, Published Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972.
  • Odeblad E: The Mucus Symptoms Length and Subphases During the Fertile Age. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 10: 303-313, 1986.
  • Rudolfsson C: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cytometric Studies on Mucus from Single Cervical Glands. Int J Fert 16: 147-150, 1971.

  • Faccioli G: Preliminary Results on the Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Infertile Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 381-385, 1984.

  • Takano N, Maekawa I, Takamizawa H: Ultrastructure of Human Cervical Mucus Observed by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy. Fertil Steril 32: 604-607, 1979.

  • Morishita H, Hashimoto T, Mitani H, et al: Cervical Mucus and Prediction of the Time of Ovulation. Gyn Obstet Invest 10: 157-162, 1979.

  • Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, et al: Cervical Mucus Changes in Relationship to Urinary Luteinizing Hormone. Fertil Steril 48: 783-786, 1987.

  • Hilgers, TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: Observation of Mucus Survey. St. Louis University Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  • Hilgers TW, Prebil AM: The Statistical Parameters of the Mucus Cycle: A Study of 600 Cycles. St. Louis Univeristy Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).


Pomiar szyjki

  • Insler V, Melmed H, Eichenbrenner I., et al: The Cervical Score: A Simple Semiquantative Method for Monitoring of the Menstrual Cycle. Int J Gynec Obstet 10: 223-228, 1972.
  • Odeblad E: Cervical Factors. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 5: 153-162, 1981.


Obserwacja sromu

  • Hilgers TW and Prebil AM: The Ovulation Method—Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility. Obstet Gynecol 53: 12-22, 1979.


Wyznaczanie owulacji

  • Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52: 575-582, 1978.

  • Hilgers TW: Psychodynamics of the Use of the Ovulation Method. Unpublished manuscript. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Omaha, Nebraska, 1978.
  • Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, and Daly KD: The Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method as a Means of Achieving and Avoiding Pregnancy. Paper presented at the Education Phase III Continuing Education Conference for Natural Family Planning Practitioners, Mercy Fontenelle Center, Omaha, Nebraska, July 1980.


Anatomia i fizjologia cyklu

  • Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB and Burger HG (1972) Symptoms and hormonal changes accompanying ovulation. Lancet 1,282–284.MedlineWeb of Science

  • Ecochard R, Boehringer H, Rabilloud M and Marret H (2001) Chronological aspects of ultrasonic, hormhormonal and other indirect indices of ovulation. Br J Obstet Gynecol 108,822–829.

  • Vermesh M, Kletzky OA, Davajan V et al. Monitoring techniques to predict and detect ovualtion. Fertil Steril 2:259–64, 1987

  • Miolo, L., Colombo, B. and Marshall, J. (1993) A database for biometric research on changes in basal body temperature in the menstrual cycle. Statistica, LIII, 563±572.
  • Brown, J.B., Blackwell, L.F., Holmes, J. and Smyth, K. (1989) New assays for identifying the fertile period. Int. J Gynecol. Obstet., 1 (Suppl.), 111±122.

  • Colombo, B. (1989) Biometrical research on some parameters of the menstrual cycle. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet., 1 (Suppl.), 13±18.

  • Odeblad, E. (1997) Cervical mucus and their functions. J. Ir. Coll. Physicians Surg., 26, 27±32.
  • Odeblad, E., Ingelman-Sundberg, A., Hallstrom, L., Hoglund, A., Lepanen, U., Rudolfsson-Asberg, K., Lisspers, K., Perenyi, E., Sahlin, K., Lindstrom-Sjogren, C. et al. (1983) The biophysical properties of the cervical-vaginal secretions. Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plann., 7, 1±56.
  • Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Mar 1;125(1):72-8. Epub 2005 Sep 8. Cervical mucus secretions on the day of intercourse: an accurate marker of highly fertile days. Scarpa B, Dunson DB, Colombo B.

  • Cohen MR, Stein IF and Kaye BM: Spinnbarkeit: A Characteristic of Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 3: 201, 1952.

  • Garcia N, Giacchi E, Campo S, et al: Canalization of Human Cervical Mucus. Obstet Gynecol 64: 164-169, 1984.

  • Odeblad E: The Biophysical Properties of the Cervical-Vaginal Secretions. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 7: 1-56, 1983.
  • Odeblad E. Molecular Biology of the Cyclic Changes of Cervical Mucus. Paper presented at the meeting “Scientific Bases and Problems of Natural Fertility Regulation,” sponsored by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, Italy, Nov. 16, Italy, Nov. 16, 1994.
  • Faccioli G. Hormonal Bases of the Correspondence Between Microscopic and Ultra Microscopic Features of Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 131-136, 1984.

  • Ferin J, Thomas, and Johansson EDB: Ovulation Detection. In: Human Reproduction: Conception and Contraception, (Hafez, E.S.E, and Evans, T.N., Eds.) Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1973.
  • Moghissi KS, Syner FN, and Evans TN: A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 405-416, 1972.


Endokrynologia cyklu

  • Brown JB, Harisson P, Smith MA, et al: Correlations Between the Mucus Symptoms and the Hormonal Markers of Fertility Throughout Reproductive Life. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1981.
  • Casey JH: The Correlation Between Midcycle Hormonal Profiles, Cervical Mucus and Ovulation in Normal Women. In:Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne Australia, p68, 1979.
  • Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, et al: Correlation of Plasma Gonadatrophins and Ovarian Steroid Pattern with Symptomatic Changes in Cervical Mucus During the Menstrual Cycle in Normal Cycling Women. Contraception. 23: 635-641, 1981.

    • Taylor RS, Woods JB and Guapo M.: Correlation of Vaginal Hormonal Cytograms with Cervical Mucus Symptoms. J Reprod Med 31, 1986.

Podstawy obserwacji

  • Fehring, R., Schneider, M., Raviele, K. (2007). Efficacy of hormonal fertility monitoring as a method of natural family planning. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 36(2):152-160.
  • Hum Reprod. 2004 Apr;19(4):889-92. Epub 2004 Feb 27. Mucus observations in the fertile window: a better predictor of conception than timing of intercourse. Bigelow JL, Dunson DB, Stanford JB, Ecochard R, Gnoth C, Colombo B.
  • Gnoth, C., Frank‐Herrmann, P., Bremme, M., Freundl, G. and Godehardt, E. (1996) How do self‐observed cycle symptoms correlate with ovulation? Zentralbl. Gynakol., 118, 650–654.

  • Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jun;101(6):1285-93.Vulvar mucus observations and the probability of pregnancy.


  • World Health Organization, A prospective multicenter trial of the ovulation method of natural family planning. The teaching phase. Fertility and Sterility, 36/1981, s. 152-158.
  • Frank-Herrmann P., Heil J., Gnoth C., Toledo E., Baur S., Pyper C., Jenetzky E., Strowitzki T.,  Freundl G.. The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study. Human Reproduction pp. 1–10, 2007

  • Barrett JC and Marshall J (1969) The risk of conception on different days of the menstrual cycle. Pop Stud 23,455–461.CrossRef

  • Dunson DB, Baird DD, Wilcox AJ and Weinberg CR (1999) Dayspecific probabilities of clinical pregnancy based on two studies with imperfect measures of ovulation. Hum Reprod 14,1835–1839.

  • Time to pregnancy: results of the German prospective study and impact on the management of infertility C. Gnoth1,4, D. Godehardt1, E. Godehardt2, P. Frank‐Herrmann1,3 and G. Freundl1

  • Hilgers, T.W., Daly, K.D., Prebil, A.M. and Hilgers, S.K. (1992) Cumulative pregnancy rates in patients with apparently normal fertility and fertility‐focused intercourse. J. Reprod. Med., 37, 864–866.

  • Women's interest in natural family planning. Stanford JB, Lemaire JC, Thurman PB. J Fam Pract. 1998 Jan;46(1):65-71.

  • Pommerenke WT: American Journal of Obstet Gynecol 52: 1023, 1946. 

  • Rydberg E: Acta. Obstet Gynec Scand 29 (fac.1):127, 1948.
  • Sims JM: British Medical Journal, 2: 465-492, 1868.

  • Fehring RJ, Lawrence DM, Sauvage CM: Self-esteem, Spiritual Well-being and Intimacy: A Comparison Among Couples Using NFP and Oral Contraceptives. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13 (3/4): 227-236, 1989.

  • Tietze C and Lewit S: Statistical Evaluation of Contraceptive Methods: Use-Effectiveness and Extended Use-Effectiveness. Demography 5: 931, 1968.

  • Tietze C: The Clinical Effectiveness of Contraceptive Methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 78: 650-656, 1959.

  • Tietze C and Lewit S: The IUD and the Pill: Extended Use-Effectiveness. Fam Plan Perspec 3: 53-55, 1971.

  • Tietze C and Lewit S: Use Effectiveness of Oral and Intrauterine Contraception. Fertil Steril 22:508-513, 1971.
  • Klaus H: Natural Family Planning: A Review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 37: 128-150, 1982.

  • Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility and Fertility-Focused Intercourse. J Reprod Med10: 864-866, 1992.

  • Smith WT: The Pathology and Treatment of Leucorrhea, Churchill, London, 1855.